The SPD was skeptical and divided. [56][62], On the 28 October 1989, to try to calm the protests, an amnesty was issued for political prisoners being held for border crimes or for participation in the weekly demonstrations. This caused a lot of resentment and helped to activate the opposition movement. Soon there were more than 4,000 people in the Prague embassy. However, when Modrow committed to a one-nation Germany a few days later, the United Left withdrew its acceptance due to "a breach of trust" and rejected being involving in the government. The talks were largely unproductive, with Kohl unwilling to make any decisive appointments with the pivotal election only weeks away. At the first meeting of the Central Round Table on 7 December 1989, the participants defined the new body as an advisory and decision-making institution. Translations in context of "Wende" in German-English from Reverso Context: ich wende, unerwartete Wende, Wende der Ereignisse, Wende zum Besseren Gründungstag von „Hull-House“, Vorkonferenz zum 9. However, between 9 and 22 November alone, over 11 million East Germans had crossed into West Berlin or West Germany. Rather than stifle the East Germans' protests, the Tiananmen Square demonstration was further inspiration for their desire to instigate change. [13], Following the reforms, by 1988 relations had soured between Gorbachev and Honecker, although the relationship of KGB and the Stasi was still close. 1989 - März 1990 Montagsdemonstrationen Die montäglichen Demonstrationen in Leipzig tragen mit zur Wende in der DDR bei. The traveled to west Germany by trains which went through the GDR. [70] The Politburo of the SED remained the real holders of political power. Other protests outside the Palace of the Republic were also repressed. Egon Krenz became the new leader of the SED (Generalsekretär des Zentralkomitees der SED, "General Secretary of the Central Comitee of the SED") and head of state (Staatsratsvorsitzender, "Chairman of the State Council"). Wende ("the turn-around") refers to a historical process in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the years 1989 and 1990, after the Soviet reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. [54], On 7 November 1989, the entire Cabinet of the East German government, the 44-member Council of Ministers, led by Prime Minister Willi Stoph, resigned as a consequence of the political upheaval caused by the mass exodus of citizens via the Hungarian and Czechoslovakian borders and the ongoing protests. [53][61] After the demonstration on 9 October, in which the security forces were completely outnumbered by the 70,000 protesters and unable to hinder them, the demonstrations in Leipzig and elsewhere remained relatively peaceful. The most importand party of the Alliance was the CDU, and their chairman, Lothar de Maizière, became the new Minister-President of the GDR. [39][40][41], About 100,000 East Germans then travelled to Hungary, hoping to also get across the border. Half the country's domestic sewage was untreated, as was most industrial waste. In theory, watching it was banned, but it was tolerated as it couldn't be prevented. On the day the Berlin Wall fell, West German chancellor Kohl and his foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher were on a state visit to Poland, which was cut short for the new situation. In cities, towns and villages, there were many other Round Tables established, too. [2][31] After the demolition of the border facilities, the patrols of the heavily armed Hungarian border guards were tightened and there was still a shooting order. On 10 February 1990, Kohl and his advisers had positive talks with Gorbachev in Moscow. Bryant, Chris and Stefan Wagstyl, Stefan (9 May 2009), Mark Keck-Szajbel, Mark; Stola, Dariusz (11 March 2015), Blask, Falk; Bindig, Belinda; Gelhausen, Franck (2009), Sontheimer, Michael; Supp, Barbara (4 July 2008). Although Krenz, 52, was the youngest member of the Politburo, he was a hardliner who had congratulated the Chinese regime on its brutal crushing of the Tiananmen Square demonstration. This happened through non-violent initiatives and demonstrations. Die Wende (da. Before the press conference ended, a journalist from Italy asked Schabowski a question about freedom of travel. The last was the Stasi headquarters in East Berlin on 15 January 1990. The number of applications for an "Ausreiseantrag" (permission to leave the country) had increased and there was discontent about housing conditions and shortages of basic products. [45] New Forum acted as an umbrella organisation for activist groups across the country. In the evening of 9 November 1989, there was a press conference with the press secretary of the Central Committee of the SED, Günter Schabowski. It also announced a proposal to downgrade illegal border crossing from a crime to a misdemeanour. Since October 1989, there were lots of demonstrations against the SED and for democracy and human rights. [Note 4] When the Chinese regime brutally crushed the demonstration on 3–4 June, several hundred and possibly several thousand protesters were killed. Election monitors from churches and other groups showed the figures had been falsified. [63], The first wave of demonstrations ended in March 1990 due to the forthcoming free parliamentary elections on 18 March. On 18 October, the main leaders of the SED decided that their chairman, Erich Honecker had to resign. The 25th anniversary of the peaceful revolution, Wahlfälschung 1989 Die Angst der SED vor tausend Nein-Stimmen, 99 Percent for the Communists: How the End of East Germany Began, Outrage at poll that breached Berlin Wall, "Crossing the Borders of Friendship: Mobility across Communist Borders", Vergessene Migrationsgeschichte/n? Making the application was risky as the applicants were considered disloyal "enemies of the state". [53][56] The most noted slogan protesters shouted was "Wir sind das Volk" ("We are the people"), meaning that in a real democracy, the people determine how the country is governed. Most parts of East Germany could pick up West German television. The people who were against the SED and communism did not want to use violence, and so these events are also known as the Peaceful Revolution (in German: Friedliche Revolution). Günter Simon: Tisch-Zeiten, Aus den Notizen eines Chefredakteurs 1981 bis 1989 . From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Online magazine about the Peaceful Revolution, "Chronicles of the Wende" (The Fall of The Wall) by German television,, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. [47], East Germans could see news about the Tiananmen Square democracy demonstration between April and June 1989 on West German television broadcasts. [32][33], On 10 August 1989, Hungary announced it would be further relaxing its handling of first-time East German border offenders, which had already become lenient. [78] During a telephone conversation on 11 November 1989 with SED General Secretary Egon Krenz, who insisted that reunification was not on the agenda, Kohl conceded that the creation of "reasonable relations" was currently most pressing. Kim Wegenke lives in Memphis, TN; previous cities include Atlanta GA and Jackson TN. Egon Krenz: Herbst ` 89 2.) Union) regierten in Deutschland - This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 04:09. Sixteen civil rights activists in East Berlin were arrested for protesting against the actions of the Chinese government. Since the end of October, opposition groups had called for the creation of a round table. Extensive advertising for the planned picnic was made by posters and flyers among the GDR holidaymakers in Hungary. Many people in the GDR still feared the Ministry of State Security, which was known as the "Stasi". Soon, more and more East Germans went to the embassies of West Germany in Warsaw and especially in Prague. They all had similar aims, wanting greater democracy and environmental reforms. These demonstrations are called Montagsdemonstrationen ("Monday Demonstrations"). Prayers were said for people who had been mistreated by the state authorities, so the meetings took on a political character. Between the first and eighth of October 1989, 14 so-called "Freedom Trains" (German: Flüchtlingszüge aus Prag [de]) carried a total of 12,000 people to Hof, in Bavaria. Kramsch, Claire (1993) - Foreign Language Study - 295 pages, Childs, David; Popplewell, Richard (2016), "Report on the state of the nation in divided Germany" by Helmut Kohl, reformist movements that spread through Eastern Bloc countries, opening of Hungary's border fence with Austria, General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of 1980–1981, dismantling its border fence with Austria, 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, Learn how and when to remove this template message, On this day: 27 June - the Iron Curtain was breached, How a pan-European picnic brought down the iron curtain, (December 2011) "Contemporary Issues in Historical Perspective: The Demise of the Soviet Bloc", The Soviet Non-Invasion of Poland in 1980/81 and the End of the Cold War, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Gorbachev's vision for a 'common European home'- archive, July 1989, Gorbachev, in Finland, Disavows Any Right of Regional Intervention, DDR Museum. sprachanalytische Wende {f} linguistic-analytic turnling.philos.spec. On 18 March 1990, there were free elections to the parliament of East Germany, the Volkskammer ("People's Chamber"). Every detail was foreseen, from where the doorbell was located on the house of each person to be arrested to the adequate supply of barbed wire and the rules of dress and etiquette in the camps...[67], However, when Mielke sent the orders, codenamed "Shield" (German: Schild),[65] to each local Stasi precinct to begin the planned arrests, he was ignored. [50], On 7 October, a candelight demonstration with 1,500 protesters around Gethsemane Church in Prenzlauer Berg, Berlin was crushed by security forces, who beat people up and made around 500 arrests. [49], The Neues Deutschland, the official newspaper of the SED, supported the crackdown by the Chinese authorities. 4 Titel. Kohl stressed that the driving factor behind the developments was the GDR populace and not the FRG government, which was itself surprised by the events and had to react. During a press conference the same day, the author Stefan Heym also read the appeal, and within a few days it had received 1.17 million signatures. The majority of these groups agreed to a counteroffer of placing candidates from the Central Round Table in a non-party transitional government. [72], Krenz, the last SED leader of the GDR, was only in office for 46 days, resigning on 3 December, along with the rest of the SED Politburo and the Central Committee of the party. Hungary and Poland are doing it their way." In that night lots of people went to West Berlin and back. Two days later, on 9 October, there was the next Monday Demonstration in Leipzig. Zusammenfassung Das Auftreten von paranoidem Bedrohungs- und Verfolgungserleben mit zeitgeschichtlichem Bezugsgehalt (staatliche Überwachung, Staatssicherheit) von ausgesuchten Jahrgängen stationärer Behandlung vor der politischen Wende 1989 einerseits, andererseits von 1990/91 wurde verglichen, getrennt nach Wahn bei Schizophrenie und nicht-schizophrener … Between 4–5 November, the weekend before the Berlin Wall was opened, over 50,000 people left. These election was won by the Allianz für Deutschland ("Alliance for Germany"), a group of parties which wanted the GDR to be annexed by West Germany. Jahrhunderts und stellt den „bislang größten militärischen Konflikt"[1] in der Geschichte der … Oktober 2009 um 16:07 Uhr Chronik: Die Wende in der DDR 1989/90. „Der 19. About 70,000 people went peacefully through the city centre, and the police or the State Security (Stasi) did not do anything to stop them. 3 December 1989 - The Socialist Unity Party's stepping down. In August 1989, Hungary opened its borders to Austria, and many tourists from East Germany crossed the border and fled to Western countries. When this information was broadcast, it was picked up in East Germany, instigating protests. It had over 200,000 members within a few weeks of being set up. In light of these frosty reactions, the West German government viewed a meeting of the four Allied powers on 11 December 1989 as a demonstrative affront. Při zpětném pohledu dostal politicky neutrální německý výraz Wende (znamená „změna“, „převrat“, „otočka“) od roku 1989 nový, politicky zabarvený význam. From December 1989, the GDR government of Prime Minister Hans Modrow was influenced by the Central Round Table, which put into action the dissolution of the Stasi and prepared free elections. So more and more East Germans went to the Wall to see if this was true. [52] The largest gatherings were the Alexanderplatz demonstration in Berlin on 4 November 1989, and 11 November in Leipzig, each with an estimated 500,000 protesters, although there are claims that up to 750,000 were at the Berlin demonstration. In the GDR itself, some oppositional groups were founded, for example the Neues Forum ("New Forum"), the Demokratischer Aufbruch ("Democratic Awakening") or Demokratie Jetzt ("Democracy Now"). After a year, the sale of the magazine was reinstated, and censored editions of the issues from the preceding year were made available in a special edition for East Germans. It called for "a separate identity for the GDR" to be established and warned against a "sell-out of our material and moral values" through reunification, stating there was still "the chance to develop a socialist alternative to the FRG as an equal partner amongst the states of Europe".[79]. Die Friedliche Revolution führte zum Mauerfall und zur Wiedervereinigung Deutschlands. In Leipzig, there was no violence as the 70,000 participants were too many for the 8,000 armed security forces present to tackle. [23] About 3.5 million people left the GDR for West Germany before the building of the Berlin Wall and the Inner German border in August 1961. These events were closely linked to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's decision to abandon Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe as well as the reformist movements that spread through Eastern Bloc countries. The Wende was known to be very peaceful. The socialist reform program of Modrow's government lacked support both domestically and internationally. He aimed to preempt a state visit by Mitterrand on 20–22 December 1989 and planned talks with Minister President Modrow. On 7 October 1989, there was the 40th "birthday" of the GDR. This was a payment that the West German government had given to visiting East Germans since 1970. [Note 3], The Hungarian leader, János Kádár, retired on 22 May 1988 and other political parties were formed which challenged the old socialist order in Hungary, leading to a period of liberalisation. [1] Previous uprisings - East Germany (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Poland (1956), Hungary (1956) and the Prague Spring (1968) - were harshly put down by Soviet troops. Only the United States government, under George H. W. Bush, offered the West German chancellor support by setting out its own interests in any potential German reunification the day after Kohl's plan. November 1989 in der Übersicht. Only a day earlier, Kohl had set out new conditions for closer collaboration with the GDR leadership: the SED's abandonment of its monopoly on power, the allowing of independent parties, free elections, and the building up of a market economy. The idea of opening the border at a ceremony came from Otto von Habsburg and was brought up by him to Miklós Németh, the then Hungarian Prime Minister, who promoted the idea. [nach diesem Titel suchen] Verlag Neues Leben GmbH Berlin u.a. [80] The term was first used publicly in East Germany on 18 October in a speech by interim GDR leader Egon Krenz. More than 400,000 people took part, and the demonstration was shown live on East German television. 4. It was founded by the artist Bärbel Bohley along with the Jens Reich and Jutta Seidel. [56], On 8 October 1989, Erich Mielke and Erich Honecker ordered the Stasi to implement "Plan X"—the SED's plan to arrest and indefinitely detain 85,939 East Germans during a state of emergency. die Wende schaffen to turn things around eine Wende herbeiführen to bring about a rebound 180-Grad-Wende {f} [auch fig.] Weltkrieges? [24][Note 1], The government also forcibly exiled people, and political prisoners and their families could be ransomed to the West German government, although those involved had no choice in the matter.

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